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Thursday, July 16, 2020 | History

2 edition of Chemical composition of ferromanganese crusts in the world ocean found in the catalog.

Chemical composition of ferromanganese crusts in the world ocean

Chemical composition of ferromanganese crusts in the world ocean

a review and comprehensive database

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  • 12 Currently reading

Published by U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Geological Survey in [Reston, VA] .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Ferromanganese -- Composition -- Data processing,
  • Marine mineral resources -- Data processing

  • Edition Notes

    Statementedited by Frank T. Manheim and Candice M. Lane-Bostwick
    SeriesOpen-file report -- 89-20, U.S. Geological Survey open-file report -- 89-20
    ContributionsManheim, Frank T, Lane-Bostwick, Candice M, Geological Survey (U.S.)
    The Physical Object
    FormatMicroform
    Pagination1 v. (various pagings)
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL14440150M

    Table 3 presents the chemical composition of these two samples in comparison with the Fe-Mn crusts from the different regions of the Pacific Ocean. The Mn and Fe contents in the sample from the Yōmei Guyot are % and %, respectively, and . World Ocean Database on the Chemical Composition of Ferromanganese Crusts ((eds Manheim, F. T. & Lane-Bostwick, C. M.) (Final report to the US Minerals Management Service, ).

    F. T. Manheim and C. M. Lane-Bostwick, Chemical Composition of Ferromanganese Crusts in the World Ocean: A Review and Comprehensive Database. USGS Open-File Rep. No. (Woods Hole, Mass., ). Google Scholar. An available statistical analysis indicates that 84% of Fe-Mn crusts in the world’s major oceans have growth rates of 1–7 mm/My 5. With such extremely slow growth rates, fine-scale sample.

      The limited variation of δ 51 V in these hydrogenous Fe-Mn crusts and nodules regardless of their elemental geochemistry, location and depositional water-depth implies that δ 51 V in younger non-phosphatized hydrogenetic ferromanganese crusts and nodules are uniform throughout the oceans, with an average of − ± ‰ (2 SD, n = 22). Here, we show that nanometer-scale magnetite crystals found in Fe-Mn crusts from the Pacific Ocean and South China Sea are magnetosome fossils based on their narrow size range, chain arrangement, chemical purity, and crystallographic perfection, as indicated by transmission electron microscopy.


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Chemical composition of ferromanganese crusts in the world ocean Download PDF EPUB FB2

Chemical Composition of Ferromanganese Crusts in the World Ocean: A Review and Comprehensive Database By Frank T. Manheim and Candice M. Lane-Bostwick. Chemical composition of ferromanganese crusts in the world ocean: a review and comprehensive database Open-File Report By: Frank T. Manheim and Candice M.

Lane-Bostwick. Get this from a library. Chemical composition of ferromanganese crusts in the world ocean: a review and comprehensive database. [Frank T Manheim; Candice. The USGS Ferromanganese Crust data set was compiled by F.T. Manheim and C.M. Lane-Bostwick of the U.S. Geological Survey, Woods Hole, MA.

The data set consists of tables corresponding the USGS Open-File Report "Chemical Composition of Ferromanganese Crusts in the World Oceans: A Review and Comprehensive Database.". Layered ferromanganese crusts collected by dredge from a water depth range of to m on Mendeleev Ridge, Arctic Ocean, were analyzed for mineralogical and chemical compositions and dated using the excess Th technique.

Comparison with crusts from other oceans reveals that Fe-Mn deposits of Mendeleev Ridge have the highest Fe/Mn ratios, are depleted in Mn, Co, and Ni, Cited by: Deep-Ocean Ferromanganese Crusts and Nodules Table 1 Compiled chemical composition of crusts and nodules from selected areas of the global ocean (see Figure 2).

Ferromanganese (FeMn) crusts from Mendeleev Ridge, Chukchi Borderland, and Alpha Ridge, in the Amerasia Basin, Arctic Ocean, are similar based on morphology and chemical composition.

The crusts. The mean NER Fe–Mn crust composition is enriched more than times in 12 elements, including elements of potential economic interest: Co (x), Mo (x), Mn (x), Te (), Bi (x), Rh (x), and Pt (x) compared to the Indian Ocean crust mean.

The unique properties and slow growth rates of the crusts promote adsorption of numerous elements from seawater: some, such as Te and Co, reach concentrations rarely encountered elsewhere in nature.

Consequently, Fe–Mn crusts are potential sources of metals used in technologies considered essential for the transition to a low-carbon economy. REEs in ferromanganese nodules and crusts are sourced from weathering of medium-acidic rocks in the SCS.

Ferromanganese nodules and crusts consist of a relatively high content of Cu + Ni and low Co. The content of Ce is almost 50% of sum lanthanon (Yang, Chen, Yan, & Gu, ).

Composition of ferromanganese crusts and nodules at northwestern Pacific guyots and geologic and paleoceanographic considerations. In: Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program. Texas A & M University, Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, USA, – Crusts are composed of ferruginous vernadite (o-Mn02) and X-ray amorphous Fe oxyhydroxide, with moderate amounts of carbonate fluorapatite (Cl.

Pelagic ferromanganese nodules cover the ocean floor over large areas, particularly in the central Pacific, and many volcanic edifices are coated by Fe–Mn crusts built on the rock surfaces.

The nodules and crusts form the hydrogenetic end-member in what is really a continuous distribution of Fe–Mn accumulations between hydrogenetic and. The major controls on the variability of ferromanganese (FeMn) crust composition have been generally described over the past 40 years; however, most compilation studies lack quantitative statistics and are limited to a small region of several seamounts or compare FeMn crusts from disparate areas of the global oceans.

The mineral and chemical compositions of a set of crust samples collected from the North, Central and South Atlantic were examined by means of analytical electron microscopy and ICP-MS, chemical, and microchemical elemental analysis. The dominant mineral phases of the crusts are vernadite, asbolane, and goethite, with minor ferrihydrite, and rare hematite and feroxyhyte.

Cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts occur throughout the global ocean on seamounts, ridges, and plateaus where currents have kept the rocks swept clean of sediments for millions of years. The Rio Grande Rise (RGR) is a large elevation in the Atlantic Ocean and known to host potential mineral resources of ferromanganese crusts (Fe–Mn), but no investigation into their general characteristics have been made in detail.

Here, we investigate the chemical and mineralogical composition, growth rates and ages of initiation, and phosphatization of relatively shallow-water. Abstract. Cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts from the seafloor are gaining significance due to the presence of a variety of major, minor, and trace metals that are of strategic importance for sustained demands of the industry in future.

This chapter describes the occurrence and nature, mineralogy, formation and growth, chemical composition as well as their inter-relationships. The chemical and mineralogical compositions of ferromanganese crusts collected from surfaces of northwestern Pacific guyots during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg show that they are mainly hydrogenous deposits; that is, they have been formed by the slow accumulation of trace metal enriched oxides directly from the seawater column.

FeMn crusts from the Amerasia Basin of the Arctic Ocean have similar chemical compositions but differ from hydrogenetic deep-ocean crusts from the Pacific Ocean by having relatively high Fe/Mn and low Si/Al ratios, and enrichments of As, Li, V, Sc, and Th, as well as lower contents of sorbed water.

Based on publications devoted to the composition of P-rich ferromanganese crusts on Pacific seamounts, relationships between the REE distribution in the crusts .Ferromanganese (FeMn) crusts from Mendeleev Ridge, Chukchi Borderland, and Alpha Ridge, in the Amerasia Basin, Arctic Ocean, are similar based on morphology and chemical composition.

The crusts are characterized by a two- to four-layered stratigraphy. The chemical composition of the Arctic crusts differs significantly from hydrogenetic crusts.Ferromanganese nodules/crusts and seafloor massive sulfides are a unique feature of the deep-ocean seafloor.

These deep-ocean mineral deposits are windows into Earth's processes, revealing clues to the evolution of seawater and ancient ore-forming processes.